Contains -- "Martin Classification of Difficulty for U.S. State Highpoints."
Thomas P. Martin*
The original source for this article is "Highpointing - Summiting United States Highpoints" in Future Focus, Ohio Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 28:1:29-33, Spring/Summer, 1997.
The article was revised, updated and published as "Highpointing - Summiting United States Highpoints for Fun, Fitness, Friends, Focus and Folly" in World Leisure & Recreation, 40:34-38, 1998.
Article revised and updated for web page: January 26, 2009
*Thomas P. Martin, Ph.D., FACSM, RCEP
Professor Health, Fitness and Sport Department
P.O. Box 720
Springfield, OH 45501
FAX (937) 327-6428
Link to Tom Martin's Web Page
Highpointing refers to the activity of reaching the highest natural elevation(s) in some specified region. The region could be a state, geographical area, country, continent, or the world. The purpose of this article is to describe the activity and benefits of pursuing a United States (50) highpoints project. Highpointing is an excellent activity for individuals of all ages. Planning and then traveling to state highpoints involves healthy outdoor recreation with concomitant learning of state and regional geography and history. It's great fun, and can be a terrific personal, family, or group project. Some state highpoints can be done in a car as "drive-ups," some are easy hikes, others require cross country travel, and some involve climbing with considerable exposure or travel on glaciers where ropes are required.
The earliest reference found relating to state highpoints was a 1909 article in The National Geographic Magazine titled "The Highest Point in Each State." It is interesting that the locations of some state highpoints were not known, the elevations of several others were listed as approximate, and some highpoints listed were later discovered to be incorrect. "Highpointing" has come a long way in the past 100 years; there are now state highpoint guides, and even a Highpointers Club.
II. Benefits of Highpointing
Mental/Emotional: Highpointing provides for outdoor
"re-creation." It can expand the senses and bring joy to the heart. Excitement,
related to preparation, execution, and reflection on individual highpoints,
is part of the experience. The mental and physical stimulation related
to these activities can reduce stress and provide an outlet for creative
self-expression. For example, verbal description, written report, and/or
production of a product (e.g. presentation, scrapbook or photo album) related
to experiences can result in much personal satisfaction. For some, the
challenge of the more difficult highpoints is an attraction. A desire to
answer the questions; "What are my capabilities? and What are my limits?"
may come into play. For others, the satisfaction of the effort, whether
successful or unsuccessful, is the reward. In both cases the experiences
can be "uplifting" and have a positive influence on self-image. Finally,
and most importantly, highpointing is FUN!
Physical: Highpointing can be an excellent activity
for maintaining and/or developing fitness. The difficulty in reaching individual
highpoints ranges from easy (e.g. drive-ups and short hikes) to difficult
(e.g. long hikes and climbing at altitude)--see Highpoint Location and
Classification below. Hence the "activity benefit" depends on the highpoint(s)
selected. As the difficulty of the highpoint increases, so also does the
physical benefit. At the same time, the range of difficulty means that
individuals of all ages and physical abilities can achieve success in summiting
many state highpoints. Typically, an individual pursuing a highpoint project
will maintain a regular exercise routine and also train for specific outings
that require a higher level of fitness. The combination of preparing for
and doing highpoints combine to help maintain (and perhaps improve) body
Social: Social benefits depend on the individual
and how that person chooses to interact with others. For the vast majority
of highpoints, one can choose solitude or sharing the experience with others.
Planning, traveling, hiking, climbing with family and/or friends can act
to strengthen personal relationships; while performing these activities
with new acquaintances can aid in the development of new relationships.
The opportunity for positive and memorable experiences is great, though
much depends on the mental attitude and cooperation of the participants.
One of the keys to positive social benefit appears to be a similar desire/motivation
to reach the highpoint. Some of the more difficult highpoints require
a team approach (e.g. ropes for protection) and put a premium on the ability
to positively interact with others
Environmental: Each state highpoint is unique,
it may be located on a farm, road, rock outcrop, mound, hill, point, dome,
knob, butte, mesa, bald, peak, or mountain. It may be in a city, on private
land, on the grounds of a school, in a park (local, state or national),
or in a wilderness area. It may show extensive signs of pollution or be
in a pristine natural condition. In addition, the appearance of each highpoint
will change with the seasons, weather conditions, and even the time of
day. Environmental awareness and consciousness are part and parcel of the
highpointing experience. Highpointers are concerned with the environment
and are often leaders in its preservation, protection, and care. "Take
only pictures and leave only footprints" is a common motto.
Educational: Learning occurs on a multiplicity
of levels, some intended and conscious while other learning is by circumstance
and experience. Clearly, reading about, preparing for, traveling to, and
attempting a highpoint are educational experiences. The extent of learning
is directly related to the amount of personal involvement in these activities.
For example, knowledge of the geography and history of a specific highpoint
and region may or may not be of interest. However, the conscious and unconscious
experiences of attempting a highpoint are sure to result in related learning.
Likewise, most highpoints require at least some hiking. Knowledge of and
preparation for outdoor travel, in a variety of conditions (terrain, weather,
etc.), is a prerequisite for a safe and enjoyable trip. It can also make
the difference between success or failure--and, in extreme conditions,
perhaps survival. Learning, related to one's self (i.e. mental/emotional,
physical, and social), others, and the environment, has been mentioned
Spiritual: There is a complex interplay of reasons that might explain why an individual would choose to do selected highpoints or pursue a highpoint project. Mental/emotional, physical, social, environmental, and educational benefits have been listed. Still, these can be considered "parts" of a whole. That is, not only the development, but also the fulfillment of the whole person--intellectually, physically, socially, aesthetically, and spiritually. Communing with nature by physically participating in the beauty and awesome simplicity/complexity of the environment is a spiritual experience. Words cannot express the profound feelings that accompany the mind/body/nature experience. This is the "core" of life.
III. Location and Classification of State Highpoints
Location: Table 1 presents the "Martin Classification
of Difficulty for U.S. State Highpoints." It includes an alphabetical listing
of states, the name of each state highpoint, its elevation, elevation gain,
distance, and its difficulty rating. The elevations listed are from a United
States Geological Survey (USGS) publication (1995) and may be slightly
different from elevations found in some guidebooks, on some maps, and in
other literature on these locations. The USGS revises its data as highpoints
are resurveyed and new technology is utilized to determine elevations.
The elevation gain is an estimate of ALL vertical gain (including gain
related to undulating terrain) on the "standard" route. Distance
is the round-trip distance on the easiest "standard" route. The difficulty
rating is based on the overall difficulty of reaching the highpoint by
way of the easiest standard route. Finally, the eighteen highpoints
that are wheelchair accessable (under good weather conditions) are indicated.
|Alabama AL||Cheaha Mt.||2,405||< 10||< 0.1||1a|
|Alaska AK||Mt. McKinley (Denali)||20,320||24,500||46.0||10|
|Arizona AZ||Humphreys Peak||12,633||3,500||9.0||6|
|Arkansas AR||Magazine Mt.||2,753||225||1.0||2|
|California CA||Mt. Whitney||14,494||6,750||21.4||7|
|Colorado CO||Mt. Elbert||14,433||5,000||9.0||6|
|Connecticut CT||Mt. Frissell--S slope||2,380||450||3.6||3|
|Delaware DE||Ebright Azimuth||448||< 10||< 0.1||1a|
|Florida FL||Britton Hill||345||< 10||< 0.1||1a|
|Georgia GA||Brasstown Bald||4,784||400||1.0||2a|
|Hawaii HI||Mauna Kea||13,796||230||0.4||2|
|Idaho ID||Borah Peak||12,662||5,550||6.8||8|
|Illinois IL||Charles Mound||1,235||75||0.4||1|
|Indiana IN||Hoosier Hill Point||1,257||20||0.1||1|
|Iowa IA||Hawkeye Point||1,670||< 10||0.2||1a|
|Kansas KS||Mt. Sunflower||4,039||< 10||< 0.1||1a|
|Kentucky KY||Black Mt.||4,139||< 10||0.1||1a|
|Louisiana LA||Driskill Mt.||535||150||1.8||2|
|Maine ME||Mt. Katahdin||5,267||4,200||10.4||5|
|Maryland MD||Backbone Mt.||3,360||750||2.2||3|
|Massachusetts MA||Mt. Greylock||3,487||20||0.1||1a|
|Michigan MI||Mt. Arvon||1,979||300||2.0||2|
|Minnesota MN||Eagle Mt.||2,301||600||7.0||4|
|Mississippi MS||Woodall Mt.||806||< 10||< 0.1||1a|
|Missouri MO||Taum Sauk Mt.||1,772||30||0.4||1a|
|Montana MT||Granite Peak||12,799||7,700||22.2||9|
|Nebraska NE||Panorama Point||5,424||< 10||< 0.1||1a|
|Nevada NV||Boundary Peak||13,140||4,400||7.4||6|
|New Hampshire NH||Mt. Washington||6,288||20||< 0.1||1|
|New Jersey NJ||High Point||1,803||40||0.2||1a|
|New Mexico NM||Wheeler Peak||13,161||3,250||6.2||6|
|New York NY||Mt. Marcy||5,344||3,200||14.8||5|
|North Carolina NC||Mt. Mitchell||6,684||100||0.2||1a|
|North Dakota ND||White Butte||3,506||400||2.0||2|
|Ohio OH||Campbell Hill||1,549||< 10||< 0.1||1a|
|Oklahoma OK||Black Mesa||4,973||775||8.6||4|
|Oregon OR||Mt. Hood||1 1,239||5,300||8.0||8|
|Pennsylvania PA||Mt. Davis||3,213||< 10||< 0.1||1a|
|Rhode Island RI||Jerimoth Hill||812||25||0.6||1|
|South Carolina SC||Sassafras Mt.||3,560||30||0.2||1a|
|South Dakota SD||Harney Peak||7,242||1,500||5.8||4|
|Tennessee TN||Clingmans Dome||6,643||330||1.0||2a|
|Texas TX||Guadalupe Peak||8,749||2,950||8.4||5|
|Utah UT||Kings Peak||13,528||5,350||28.8||7|
|Vermont VT||Mt. Mansfield||4,393||550||2.8||3|
|Virginia VA||Mt. Rogers||5,729||1,500||8.6||4|
|Washington WA||Mt Rainier||14,410||9,100||16.0||9|
|West Virginia WV||Spruce Knob||4,861||20||0.4||1a|
|Wisconsin WI||Timms Hill||1,951||130||0.4||1|
|Wyoming WY||Gannett Peak||13,804||8,650||40.4||9|
Classification: The author has constructed the following classification of "difficulty" for reaching specific state highpoints. This classification is based on the easiest "standard" route (see Holmes, 1998) to each summit under "good" conditions. Some highpointers take more difficult routes in order to increase the physical effort (and therefore the physical benefits) of the trip, or simply to provide a greater challenge. Also, it should be clear that other factors will impact on the difficulty of a specific highpoint--weather and route conditions, individual fitness level, outdoor skills, climbing skill, appropriate clothing, proper equipment, and perhaps teamwork. The more difficult highpoints require knowledge, preparation, fitness, and skill to safely negotiate the route.
Martin Classification of Difficulty for U.S. State Highpoints
Class 1 (21) - Drive-ups and highpoints with vertical
gains of no more than 130 feet and less than 0.6 miles round trip from
|Alabamaa||Cheaha Mt.||< 10 ft gain||< 0.1 mile||2,405 ft|
|Delawarea||Ebright Azimuth||< 10 ft gain||< 0.1 mile||448 ft|
|Floridaa||Britton Hill||< 10 ft gain||< 0.1 mile||345 ft|
|Illinois||Charles Mound||75 ft gain||0.4 mile||1,235 ft|
|Indiana||Hoosier Hill Point||20 ft gain||0.1 mile||1,257 ft|
|Iowaa||Hawkeye Point||< 10 ft gain||0.2 mile||1,670 ft|
|Kansasa||Mt. Sunflower||< 10 ft gain||< 0.1 mile||4,039 ft|
|Kentuckya||Black Mt.||< 10 ft gain||0.1 mile||4,139 ft|
|Massachusettsa||Mt. Greylock||20 ft gain||0.1 mile||3,487 ft|
|Mississippia||Woodall Mt.||< 10 ft gain||< 0.1 mile||806 ft|
|Missouria||Taum Sauk Mt.||30 ft gain||0.4 mile||1,772 ft|
|Nebraskaa||Panorama Point||< 10 ft gain||< 0.1 mile||5,424 ft|
|New Hampshire||Mt. Washington||20 ft gain||< 0.1 mile||6,288 ft|
|New Jerseya||High Point||40 ft gain||0.2 mile||1,803 ft|
|North Carolinaa||Mt. Mitchell||100 ft gain||0.2 mile||6,684 ft|
|Ohioa||Campbell Hill||< 10 ft gain||< 0.1 mile||1,549 ft|
|Pennsylvaniaa||Mt. Davis||< 10 ft gain||< 0.1 mile||3,213 ft|
|Rhode Island||Jerimoth Hill||25 ft gain||0.6 mile||812 ft|
|South Carolinaa||Sassafras Mt.||30 ft gain||0.2 mile||3,560 ft|
|West Virginiaa||Spruce Knob||20 ft gain||0.4 mile||1,951 ft|
|Wisconsin||Timms Hill||130 ft gain||0.4 mile||1,951 ft|
Class 2 (7) - Highpoints with vertical gains of
150-400 feet and from 0.4 to 2.0 miles round trip from car
|Arkansas||Magazine Mt.||225 ft gain||1.0 mile||2,753 ft|
|Georgiaa||Brasstown Bald||400 ft gain||1.0 mile||4,784 ft|
|Hawaii||Mauna Kea||230 ft gain||0.4 mile||13,796 ft|
|Louisiana||Driskill Mt.||150 ft gain||1.8 miles||535 ft|
|Michigan||Mt. Arvon||300 ft gain||2.0 miles||1,979 ft|
|North Dakota||White Butte||400 ft gain||2.0 miles||3,506 ft|
|Tennesseea||Clingmans Dome||330 ft gain||1.0 mile||6,643 ft|
Class 3 (3) - Highpoints with vertical gains of
450-750 feet and from 2.2 to 3.6 miles round trip from car:
|Connecticut||Mt. Frissell--S slope||450 ft gain||3.6 miles||2,380 ft|
|Maryland||Backbone Mt.||750 ft gain||2.2 miles||3,360 ft|
|Vermont||Mt. Mansfield||550 ft gain||2.8 miles||4,393 ft|
Class 4 (4) - Highpoints with vertical gains of
600-1,500 feet and from 5.8 to 8.6 miles round trip from car:
|Minnesota||Eagle Mt.||600 ft gain||7.0 miles||2,301 ft|
|Oklahoma||Black Mesa||775 ft gain||8.6 miles||4,973 ft|
|South Dakota||Harney Peak||1,500 ft gain||5.8 miles||7,242 ft|
|Virginia||Mt. Rogers||1,500 ft gain||8.6 miles||5,729 ft|
Class 5 (3) - Highpoints with vertical gains of
2,950-4,200 feet and from 8.4 to 14.8 miles round trip from car:
|Maine||Mt. Katahdin||4,200 ft gain||10.4 miles||5,267 ft|
|New York||Mt. Marcy||3,200 ft gain||14.8 miles||5,344 ft|
|Texas||Guadalupe Peak||2,950 ft gain||8.4 miles||8,749 ft|
Class 6 (4) - Highpoints with vertical gains of
3,250-5,000 feet, from 6.2 to 9.0 miles round trip from car, and with summits
over 12,633 feet:
|Arizona||Humphreys Peak||3,500 ft gain||9.0 miles||12,633 ft|
|Colorado||Mt. Elbert||5,000 ft gain||9.0 miles||14,433 ft|
|New Mexico||Wheeler Peak||3,250 ft gain||6.2 miles||13,161 ft|
|Nevada||Boundary Peak||4,400 ft gain||7.4 miles||13,140 ft|
Class 7 (2) - Highpoints with vertical gains of
5,350-6,750 feet, from 21.4 to 28.8 miles round trip from car, with summits
over 13,528 feet, and likely requiring more than one day to summit and
|California||Mt. Whitney||6,750 ft gain||21.4 miles||14,494 ft|
|Utah||Kings Peak||5,350 ft gain||28.8 miles||13,528 ft|
Class 8 (2) - Highpoints with vertical gains of 5,300 feet, from 6.8 to 8.0 miles round trip from car, with summits over 11,239 feet, and requiring handholds and/or the use of ropes.
Jack Longacre was the originator and the first President of the Highpointers Club. As he was completing his own highpoint project in the early 1980's, he noticed that some registers on summits had entries indicating that others might be trying to achieve the same goal (e.g. "This was my 21st state highpoint..."). A 1986 issue of Outside Magazine placed an announcement from Longacre in the "Dispatches" section stating that he was starting a "Highpointers Club." This announcement produced correspondence with about thirty people, one of which was Don Berens. When Berens completed his 50th state highpoint, Mary Esch wrote an Associated Press article (November 1987) about his accomplishment that was published throughout the U.S. and included Longacre's name and address. This article generated correspondence with an additional sixty people and thus the club was on its way.
The club has grown steadily since it's inception and now has over 2,850 members. It has become a major source in the dissemination of highpoint information as well as a proactive force in the promotion of state highpoint recognition and care. For example, highpointers surveyed and marked Indiana's state highpoint and then lobbied the Indiana State legislature to name it! Through their efforts (and contributions) a sign and register were installed and the site was officially named Hoosier Hill Point in 1993. Some highpoints are on private land, or there is the need to cross private land to reach the highpoint, the club works to maintain good relations with landowners to insure access to these locations.
The club has an annual convention (which includes the summiting of a state highpoint), publishes a quarterly Apex to Zenith: Highpointers Club Newsletter, (see reference) and administers a Climbing Awards program.
5 state patch, embroidered logo (climb any 5 highpoints)
25 state pin, enameled (climb any 25 highpoints)
30 state pin, enameled (climb 30 with at least 5 in each of 4 geographical regions)
40 state pin, enameled (climb any 40 highpoints)
48 state pin, enameled (climb all the Lower 48 contiguous highpoints)
50 state pin, enameled (Climb all 50 highpoints)
48 state plaque, hardwood, engraved (climb all Lower 48 highpoints)
50 state plaque, hardwood, engraved (climb all 50 highpoints)
To date (January, 2009), 178 individuals have been documented to have completed all 50 state highpoints and 336 have reached the summits of the 48 contiguous states. At the same time, reaching the summits of ALL state highpoints need not be the objective. As indicated by the award program, individuals are encouraged to complete as many highpoints as their time, interest, and physical ability permits.
V. Records and Folly
Records: It is not the purpose of this article to recommend the pursuit of records related to reaching state highpoints. At the same time, some information related to this topic may be of interest to readers. Various highpointing records can be found in the annual Highpointers Club Directory, the following are examples: Arthur H. Marshall was the first to complete all state highpoints--when there were only 48 (1936). John "Vin" Hoeman was the first to complete all 50 state highpoints in 1966. In 1980, Frances "Freddie" Carter became the first woman and the fifth person to complete the fifty. Jeff and Jerry Wagener became the first father and son to complete in 1990. The American Edition of the Guinness Book of Records lists the Highpoint Hoppers as the record holders for reaching the highest point in each of the 48 contiguous states--one month (July 1-31, 1991). However, in 2006, Jack Meyers (English) completed the 48 in 23 days, 19 hours and 31 minutes. In 1991, Donna and Jack Allsup became the first husband and wife to complete all fifty. Kip and Norm Smith completed "All 50 - Over the Age of 60" and became the first husband and wife team to have completed all fifty state highpoints together in 1992. Whit Rambach and Todd Huston established a time record for completing all fifty state highpoints in 1994. It was 66 days, 21 hours and 47 minutes (Todd has only one leg!). Huston wrote a book about his experiences (1995). The current record (2006) was set by Ben Jones who completed all 50 in 50 days, 7 hours and 5 minutes. Galen Johnston (12) is the youngest male to complete the 50 state highpoints.
Folly: The January 20, 1966 edition of Ripley's Believe It or Not!, which appeared in papers throughout the U.S., described a: "Collection of Rocks gathered by George H. Peters of Freeport, L.I., N.Y., from the highest points in 49 states of the U.S. He has climbed the highest peaks in every state except Alaska." Kevin Foster Rode OR Carried his bike to 49 highpoints. Bruce Marshall organized an attempt at putting at least one participant on each state highpoint on the same day (June 29, 1994)--The APEX Challenge (Hueske, 1995). Marshall reported that 48 summits were achieved. Tom Martin completed a "50th Birthday Challenge: 50 Miles to the Highpoint of the 50th State--Hawaii" in 1993.
There are numerous other examples of individuals and groups pursuing or involved in reaching various highpoints. For example, the Adirondack 46ers climb the 46 highest peaks in New York State. The Colorado 14er's climb the 54 peaks over 14,000 feet in Colorado. There are also the Catskill 3500, the 111 northeastern peaks over 4000 feet and the 100 highest of New England. Of course, there is a separate category for doing them in winter. Some individuals are doing the "lowpoints" of each state, while others are doing the "second highest" point of each state. Individuals who have or are in the process of attempting to climb to the highest point on each of the seven continents have received a good deal of media attention. Some individuals are attempting to reach the highest point in every country in the world. Others are working on the highest point in each county of their home state--the list is unending.
VI. Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance
Highpointing is a "healthy" activity. The mental/emotional, physical, social, and spiritual benefits have been described. It is an activity that encourages an active and healthy lifestyle.
The concept of "highpointing" could provide an interesting and motivational activity for kindergarten through grade twelve students. Many physical educators have used a "walk across America," "walk across their home state," or "walk across a selected country" to encourage students to walk outside of school for fun and fitness. The students keep track of how far they have walked and post it on a decorated bulletin board. A related activity could involve students walking (distance) and ascending stairs or hills (elevation) to simulate reaching their state highpoint, highpoints in the region, or highpoints of selected states, countries, or continents. This activity could also be coordinated with the social studies and science teachers to include a review of the history and geography of various regions.
The highpointing link to recreation is obvious. It is a leisure activity that produces a multiplicity of benefits. Outdoor recreation/education is, in itself, a good description of highpointing. Highpointing involves hiking, camping, and/or climbing in a variety of ecological zones, under a variety of environmental conditions. It requires knowledge, preparation, skill, and adaptability related to out-of-doors leisure experiences.
The connection to dance is not obvious. However, this author has seen climbers "dance" on summits and "dance" after having returned from a successful climb. The joy inherent in the activity often results in involuntary and voluntary dance--an expression of happiness and pleasure related to having achieved one's goal.
Though most directly related to Recreation (Leisure Studies), the topic of "highpointing" is one that cuts across disciplines. It is an exciting and motivational activity, which can result in many positive benefits. A classification of highpoint "difficulty" has been presented as well as some records and accomplishments to illustrate the variety of individual and group projects possible with this activity. However, the real "spirit" of highpointing is in personal commitment and expression of self. The reasons for deciding to reach a highpoint or start and/or finish a highpoint project are as different and unique as are people. At the same time, it is a truism that the benefits of the experience(s) are universal. Mental/emotional, physical, social, environmental, educational, and spiritual benefits are part and parcel of the highpointing experience.
Four guides to reaching state highpoints have been published. The first, written by Ashley (1970), is now out of print. The guidebooks by Holmes (2000), Zumwalt (1998), and Winger (2002) all provide good descriptions of location, road and trail details, maps, routes, and related information for each U.S. State highpoint. Any of these sources would be an excellent starting point for planning a "highpoint outing," a highpoint project, or simply learning more about the topic. U.S. Highpoint information is updated regularly in the Apex to Zenith: Highpointers Club Newsletter. Highpoint information can also be found on the internet at:
"See you at the top!"
Ashley, F. 1970. Highpoints of the states. Glendale, CA: La Siesta Press. [out of print].
Do you need bottled oxygen for New Jersey? 1986, October. Outside Magazine, p. 24.
The highest point in each state. 1909, June. The National Geographic Magazine.
Apex to Zenith: Highpointers Club Newsletter. Craig Noland, Highpointers Club Membership Chairman, P.O. Box 6364, Sevierville, TN 37864 [Newsletter and Membership $20/year].
Holmes, D. W. 2000. Highpoints of the United States: a guide to the fifty state summits. 2nd ed. revised and updated, from Don Holmes, P.O. Box 1675, Castle Rock, CO 80104 [$18].
Hueske, D. J. (ed.). 1995. The APEX challenge. American Express Technologies [$5 from Bruce Marshall, American Express Financial Advisors, 11350 McCormick Road, Executive Plaza #3, Suite 500, Hunt Valley, MD 21031].
Huston, T. & K. D. Rizzo. 1995. More than mountains: The Todd Huston story. Boise, ID: Pacific Press [$17 from Huston Resources LLC., P.O. Box 702375, Tulsa, OK 74170].
Jacobs, D. B. 1990. Climbing Gannett Peak: A Wind River adventure. from Don Jacobs, 7425 SW Way, Vashon, WA 98070 [$6].
Jacobs, D. B. 1992. Climbing Granite Peak: A Beartooth challenge. from Don Jacobs, 7425 SW Way, Vashon, WA 98070 [$6].
Marshall, A. H. 1936, December. Forty eight state summits. Appalachia.
Martin, T. P. 1995, Spring-Summer. 50th birthday challenge: 50 miles to the highpoint of the 50th state. Future Focus 16(1): 10-14. Ohio Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 1995. Elevations and distances in the United States. Earth Science Information Center, 507 National Center, Reston, VA 22092.
Winger, Charlie and Diane. 2002. Highpoint adventures: The complete guide to the 50 state highpoints. from Charlie Winger 1022-E Phillips Ct., Montrose, CO 81401 [$19].
Zumwalt, P. L. 1998. Fifty state summits: guide with
maps to state highpoints. 2nd ed. from Jack Grauer Publisher, 5717 NE 118th St,
Vancouver, WA 98686 [$15].